what are amphibians

[42] The six families in the more evolutionarily advanced suborder Mesobatrachia are the fossorial Megophryidae, Pelobatidae, Pelodytidae, Scaphiopodidae and Rhinophrynidae and the obligatorily aquatic Pipidae. [95], At metamorphosis, rapid changes in the body take place as the lifestyle of the frog changes completely. The two most common systems are the classification adopted by the website AmphibiaWeb, University of California, Berkeley and the classification by herpetologist Darrel Frost and the American Museum of Natural History, available as the online reference database "Amphibian Species of the World". Eventually, their bony fins would evolve into limbs and they would become the ancestors to all tetrapods, including modern amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Lacking these membranes, amphibians require water bodies for reproduction, although some species have developed various strategies for protecting or bypassing the vulnerable aquatic larval stage. [40], Anura is divided into three suborders that are broadly accepted by the scientific community, but the relationships between some families remain unclear. Such was the case with the Black Sea invasion of the natural hybrid Pelophylax esculentus reported in 2010. They have three pairs of external red feathery gills, a blunt head with two rudimentary eyes, a lateral line system and a short tail with fins. Although in many frog species, females are larger than males, this is not the case in most species where males are actively involved in territorial defence. However, many of the causes of amphibian declines are still poorly understood, and are a topic of ongoing discussion. [94] Some species are carnivorous at the tadpole stage, eating insects, smaller tadpoles and fish. Some of these have specific adaptations such as enlarged teeth for biting or spines on the chest, arms or thumbs. The word amphibian comes from a Greek term meaning “double life.” Amphibians are an ancient group of animals. The rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) from North America and other members of its genus contain the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX), the most toxic non-protein substance known and almost identical to that produced by pufferfish. [68] Because oxygen concentration in the water increases at both low temperatures and high flow rates, aquatic amphibians in these situations can rely primarily on cutaneous respiration, as in the Titicaca water frog and the hellbender salamander. [86][87], The eggs of amphibians are typically laid in water and hatch into free-living larvae that complete their development in water and later transform into either aquatic or terrestrial adults. Members of the family Bufonidae are known as the "true toads". "Feeding specializations of the Mexican burrowing toad, "Feeding ecology of Panamanian litter anurans: patterns in diet and foraging mode", "Morphology and function of the feeding apparatus in, "Observations on the life history of the caecilian, "Toxicity of dangerous prey: variation of tetrodotoxin levels within and among populations of the newt, "Predator learning favours mimicry of a less-toxic model in poison frogs", "Numerical discrimination by frogs (Bombina orientalis)", 10.1670/0022-1511(2007)41[483:ADOECD]2.0.CO;2, "Number of Globally Threatened Amphibian Species by Freshwater Ecoregion", "Sustainability Issues for Resource Managers", "Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project", 10.1206/0003-0090(2006)297[0001:TATOL]2.0.CO;2, "Widespread amphibian extinctions from epidemic disease driven by global warming", ArchéoZooThèque : Amphibians skeletons drawings, Amphibian vocalisations on Archival Sound Recordings, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amphibian&oldid=990777888, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 13:10.

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